Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an
object which can be compared with other objects. Measurement is a
cornerstone of trade, science, technology, and quantitative research in
many disciplines. It is important to the fashion industry and
textile industry for many reasons.
Textile fibers, threads, yarns and fabrics are measured in a
multiplicity of units.
A fiber, a single filament of natural material, such
as cotton, linen or wool, or artificial material such as nylon,
polyester, metal or mineral fiber, or man-made cellulosic fibre like
viscose, Modal, Lyocell or other rayon fiber is measured in terms of
linear mass density, the weight of a given length of fiber. Various
units are used to refer to the measurement of a fiber, such as: the
denier and tex (linear mass density of fibers), super S (fineness of
wool fiber), worsted count, woolen count, cotton count (or Number
English (Ne)), Number metric (Nm) and yield (the reciprocal of denier
Thread, usually consisting of multiple yarns plied
together producing a long, thin strand used in sewing or weaving, is
measured in the same units as yarn.
Fabric or cloth typically produced by weaving,
knitting or knotting textile fibers, yarns or threads, is measured in
units such as the momme, thread count (a measure of the coarseness or
fineness of fabric), ends per inch (e.p.i) and picks per inch (p.p.i).
It is important for the apparel industry to understand textile units
of measure for a wide variety of reasons. Primarily in regard to
the purchasing and manufacturing process. It is important for
fabric suppliers to understand raw materials and for garment
manufacturers to also understand these units of measure.