Askewed or Bias : condition
where filling yarns are not square with warp yarns on woven fabrics
or where courses are not square with wale lines on knits.
Back Fabric Seam Impression :
backing fabric is often used to cushion fabric being printed. If
there is a joining seam in the backing fabric, an impression will
result on printed fabric.
Barre : occurs in circular
knit. Caused by mixing yarn on feed into machine. Fabric will
appear to have horizontal streaks.
Birdseye : caused by
unintentional tucking from malfunctioning needle. Usually two small
distorted stitches, side by side. This term should not be confused
with birdseye fabric which is in fact created intentionally.
Bowing : Usually caused by
finishing. Woven filling yarns lien in an arc across fabric width:
in knits the course lines lie in an arc across width of goods.
Critical on stripes or patterns and not as critical on solid color
Broken Color Pattern : Usually
caused by colored yarn out of place on frame.
Color Out : the result of
color running low in reservoir on printing machine.
Color Smear : The result of
color being smeared during printing.
Crease Mark : differs from
crease streak in that streak will probably appear for an entire
roll. Crease mark appears where creases are caused by fabric folds
in the finishing process. On napped fabric, final pressing may not
be able to restore fabric or original condition. Often
discoloration is a problem.
Crease Streak : Occurs in
tubular knits. Results from creased fabric passing through squeeze
rollers in the dyeing process.
Drop Stitches : results from
malfunctioning needle or jack. Will appear as holes or missing
Dye Streak In Printing :
Results from a damaged doctor blade or a blade not cleaned
properly. Usually a long streak until the operator notices the
End Out : Occurs in Warp
knit. Results from knitting machine continuing to run with missing
Hole : caused by broken
Jerk-in : caused by an extra
piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric by the
shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvage.
: caused by tying spools of yarn together.
Missing Yarn : Occurs in warp
knit. Reuslts from wrong fiber yarn (or wrong size yarn) placed on
warp. Fabric could appear as thick end or different color if fibers
have different affinity for dye.
Mixed End (yarn) : Yarn of a
different fiber blend used on the warp frame, resulting in a streak
in the fabric.
Mottled : Color applied
unevenly during printing.
Needle Line : Caused by bent
needle forming distorted stitches. Usually a vertical line.
Open Reed : results from a
bent reed wire causing warp ends to be held apart, exposing the
filling yarn. Will be conspicuous on fabrics that use different
colored yarns on warp and shuttle.
Pin Holes : Holes along
selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processes through
Press-Off : results when all
or some of the needles on circular knitting fail to function and
fabric either falls off the machine or design is completely
disrupted or destroyed. Many knitting needles are broken and have
to be replaced when bad press-off occurs. Bad press-offs usually
start a new roll of fabric.
Printing Machine Stop : Dye or
ink smudged along width of fabric as a result of the printing
Print Out of Repair : Caused
by print rollers not being synchronized properly. This results in
various colors of the design not being printed in the proper
Puckered Selvage : Usually
caused by selvage being stretched in finishing or by uneven wetting
out in sanforization process.
Runner : caused by broken
needle. The runner will appear as vertical line. Most machines
have a stopping device to stop the machine when a needle breaks.
Sanforize Pucker : Results
from uneven wetting out on sanforize; usually caused by defective
spray heads. Fabric will appear wavy or puckering when spread on
cutting table. Difficult to detect while inspecting on inspection
machine with fabric under roller tension.
Scrimp : the result of fabric
being folded or creased when passing through tenter frames.
Slub (woven fabric) : usually
caused by an extra piece of yarn that is woven into fabric. It can
also be caused by thick places in the yarn. Often is caused by fly
waste being spun in yarn in the spinning process.
Slub (Knit fabric) : Usually
caused by a thick or heavy place in yarn, or by ling getting onto
Smash : caused by a number of
ruptured warp ends that have been repaired.
Soiled Filling or End : Dirty,
oily looking spots on the warp or filling yarns, or on packaged-dyed
: when the loom is stopped, the yarn elongates under
tension; when the loom starts again, the slack is woven into the
Straying End : Warp Knit.
Caused when an end of yarn breaks and the loose end strays and is
knit irregularly into another area.
Thin Place: often caused by
the filling yarn breaking and the loom continuing to run until the
operator notices the problem.
Water Spots : Usually caused
by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying: color
migrates leaving blotchy spots.
are more fabric defect terms in existence. However, this is the
best list we have for you at the moment. If you know additional
terms, or updates to the terms listed above, please do not hesitate
to let us know. We would be happy to add your suggestions. The
goal is to help educate. If you have more information on this
subject, please share your knowledge with us.
shade lots & color variances for yarn, fabric, and clothing.