Xiao Gao and Praveen Kumar Jangala
Cotton today is the most used textile fiber in the world.
Its current market share is 56 percent for all fibers used for apparel and
home furnishings and sold in the U.S. . Another contribution is
attributed to nonwoven textiles and personal care items. It is generally
recognized that most consumers prefer cotton personal care items to those
containing synthetic fibers.
World textile fiber consumption in 1998 was approximately
45 million tons. Of this total, cotton represented approximately 20 million
The earliest evidence of using cotton as a textile fiber
is from India and the date assigned to this fabric is 3000 B.C. There were
also excavations of cotton fabrics of comparable age in Southern America.
Cotton cultivation first spread from India to Egypt, China and the South
Pacific. Even though cotton fiber had been known already in Southern
America, the large scale cotton cultivation in Northern America began in the
16th century with the arrival of colonists to southern parts of today's
The largest rise in cotton production is connected with
the invention of the saw-tooth cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793. With
this new technology, it was possible to produce more cotton fiber, which
resulted in big changes in the spinning and weaving industry, especially in
Today, cotton is grown in more than 80 countries
- Cotton, as a natural cellulosic fiber, has a lot of characteristics,
The major end-uses of cotton include:
- Comfortable Soft hand
- Good absorbency
- Color retention
- Prints well
- Good strength
- Drapes well
- Easy to handle and sew
- Apparel - Wide range of wearing apparel: blouses, shirts, dresses,
childrenswear, activewear, separates, swimwear, suits, jackets, skirts,
pants, sweaters, hosiery, neckwear.
- Home Fashion - curtains, draperies, bedspreads, comforters, throws,
sheets, towels, table cloths, table mats, napkins
STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF COTTON FIBERS
FIBER STRUCTURE AND FORMATION
The botanical name of American Upland cotton is
Gossypium Hirsutum and has been developed from cottons of Central
America. Upland varieties represent approximately 97% of U.S. production
Each cotton fiber is composed of concentric layers. The
cuticle layer on the fiber itself is separable from the fiber and consists
of wax and pectin materials. The primary wall, the most peripheral layer of
the fiber, is composed of cellulosic crystalline fibrils. The secondary
wall of the fiber consists of three distinct layers. All three layers of the
secondary wall include closely packed parallel fibrils with spiral winding
of 25-35o and represent the majority of cellulose within the
fiber. The innermost part of cotton fiber- the lumen- is composed of the
remains of the cell contents. Before boll opening, the lumen is filled with
liquid containing the cell nucleus and protoplasm. The twists and
convolutions of the dried fiber are due to the removal of this liquid. The
cross section of the fiber is bean-shaped, swelling almost round when
moisture absorption takes place.
The overall contents are broken down into the following components.
Raw Cotton Components
During scouring (treatment of the fiber with caustic
soda), natural waxes and fats in the fiber are saponified and pectins and
other non-cellulosic materials are released, so that the impurities can be
removed by just rinsing away. After scouring, a bleaching solution
(consisting of a stabilized oxidizing agent) interacts with the fiber and
the natural color is removed. Bleaching takes place at elevated temperature
for a fixed period of time. Mercerization is another process of improving
sorption properties of cotton. cotton fiber is immersed into 18- 25%
solution of sodium hydroxide often under tension . The fiber obtains
better luster and sorption during mercerization.
After scouring and bleaching, the fiber is 99% cellulose.
Cellulose is a polymer consisting of anhydroglucose units connected with 1,4
oxygen bridges in the beta position. The hydroxyl groups on the cellulose
units enable hydrogen bonding between two adjacent polymer chains. The
degree of polymerization of cotton is 9,000-15,000 . Cellulose shows
approximately 66% crystallinity, which can be determined by X-ray
diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and density methods.
Each crystal unit consists of five chains of
anhydroglucose units, parallel to the fibril axis. One chain is located at
each of the corners of the cell and one runs through the center of the cell.
The dimensions of the cell are a = 0.835nm, b = 1.03 nm and c = 0.79 nm. The
angle between ab and bc planes is 84
for normal cellulose, i.e , Cellulose
Repeat unit of cellulose
The current consensus regarding cellulose crystallinity
(X-ray diffraction) is that fibers are essentially 100% crystalline and that
the observed disorder is caused by very small crystalline units imperfectly
The density method used to determine cellulose
crystallinity is based on the density gradient column, where two solvents of
different densities are partially mixed. Degree of Crystallinity is, then,
determined from the density of the sample, while densities of crystalline
and amorphous cellulose forms are known (1.505 and 1.556 respectively).
Orientation of untreated cotton fiber is poor because the crystallites are
contained in the microfibrils of the secondary wall, oriented in the steep
spiral (25-30o) to the fiber axis.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COTTON
Fiber length is described  as "the average length of
the longer one-half of the fibers (upper half mean length)" This measure is
taken by scanning a "beard " of parallel fibers through a sensing region.
The beard is formed from the fibers taken from the sample, clasped in a
holding clamp and combed to align the fibers. Typical lengths of Upland
cottons might range from 0.79 to 1.36in.
Cottons come from the cotton plant, the longer strand
types such as Pima or Sea Island produce the finest types of cotton
Length uniformity or uniformity ratio is determined as "
a ratio between the mean length and the upper half mean length of the fibers
and is expressed as a percentage". Typical comparisons are illustrated
||UNIFORMITY INDEX [%]
Low uniformity index shows that there might be a high
content of short fibers which lowers the quality of the future textile
Fiber strength is measured in grams per denier. It is
determined as the force necessary to break the beard of fibers, clamped in
two sets of jaws, (1/8 inch apart) . Typical tensile levels are
illustrated. The breaking strength of cotton is about 3.0~4.9 g/denier, and
the breaking elongation is about 8~10%.
|DEGREE OF STRENGTH
||FIBER STRENGTH [g/tex]
Micronaire measurements reflect fiber fineness and
maturity. A constant mass (2.34 grams) of cotton fibers is compressed into a
space of known volume and air permeability measurements of this compressed
sample are taken. These, when converted to appropriate number, denote
The color of cotton samples is determined from two
parameters: degree of reflectance (Rd) and yellowness (+b). Degree of
reflectance shows the brightness of the sample and yellowness depicts the
degree of cotton pigmentation. Each color code is represented by a defined
area located in a Nickerson-Hunter cotton colorimeter diagram. The color of
the fibers is affected by climatic conditions, impact of insects and fungi,
type of soil, storage conditions etc. There are five recognized groups of
color: white, gray, spotted, tinged, and yellow stained. As the color of
cotton deteriorates, the processability of the fibers decreases.
Work at the University of Tennessee has led to color
measurement using both a spectrometer CIE-based average color measurment and
a color uniformity measurement using image analysis to improve the accuracy
and provide additional measurement for color grading. Later the
investigators developed two color grading systems using expert system and
A trash measurement describes the amount of non-lint
materials (such as parts of cotton plant) in the fiber. Trash content is
assessed from scanning the cotton sample surface with a video-camera and
calculating the percentage of the surface area occupied by trash particles.
The values of trash content should be within the range from 0 to 1.6%. Trash
content is highly correlated to leaf grade of the sample.
Leaf grade is provided visually as the amount of cotton
plant particles within the sample. There are seven leaf grades (#1-#7) and
one below grade (#8).
Preparation is the classer's interpretation of fiber
processability in terms of degree of roughness or smoothness of ginned
Extraneous matter is all the material in the sample other
than fiber and leaf. The degree of extraneous matter is determined by the
classer either as "light " or "heavy".
A nep is a small tangled fiber knot often caused by
processing. Neps can be measured by the AFIS nep tester and reported as the
total number of neps per 0.5 grams of the fiber and average size in
millimeters. Nep formation reflects the mechanical processing stage,
especially from the point of view of the quality and condition of the
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF COTTON
Cotton swells in a high humidity environment, in water
and in concentrated solutions of certain acids, salts and bases. The
swelling effect is usually attributed to the sorption of highly hydrated
ions. The moisture regain for cotton is about 7.1~8.5% and the moisture
absorption is 7~8%.
Cotton is attacked by hot dilute or cold concentrated
acid solutions. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose produces hydro-celluloses. It
is not affected by cold weak acids. The fibers show excellent resistance to
alkalis. There are a few other solvents that will dissolve cotton
completely. One of them is a copper complex of cupramonium hydroxide and
cupriethylene diamine (Schweitzer's reagent )
Cotton degradation is usually attributed to oxidation, hydrolysis or
both. Oxidation of cellulose can lead to two types of so-called
oxy-cellulose, depending on the environment, in which the oxidation
Insert formula or equation: Oxy-cellulose
Also, cotton can degrade by exposure to visible and
ultraviolet light, especially in the presence of high temperatures around
C and humidity. Cotton fibers are
extremely susceptible to any biological degradation (microorganisms, fungi
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF COTTON
Cotton fibers show double refraction when observed in
polarized light. Even though various effects can be observed, second order
yellow and second order blue are characteristic colors of cellulosic fibers.
 A typical birefringence value as shown in the table of physical
properties, is 0.047.
- Cotton classification is used to determine the quality
of the cotton fiber in terms of grade, length and micronaire . USDA 
classification specifically identifies the characteristics of fiber
length, length uniformity, strength, micronaire, color, preparation, leaf
and extraneous matter. In the past, these qualities were classified just
by hand-and-eye of an experienced classer. Since 1991, all classification
has been carried out with a set of up-to-date instruments, called "HVI"(High
Volume Instrumentation) classification .
However, measuring techniques of other qualities of
cotton fiber, such as fiber maturity and short fiber content, are also being
COTTON IN NON-WOVENS
Cotton is the most important apparel fiber throughout the
world. It is a fiber that was used fairly extensively during the early,
developmental period of the nonwovens business primarily because the
emerging dry-laid producers came from the textile industry and had an
intimate knowledge of cotton and its processing characteristics.
It was in the early part of 20th Century that a few
cotton mills in the US wanted to find ways to upgrade the waste cotton
fibers into saleable products. The first method used was bonding the short
cotton fibers (fiber waste) with latex and resin. These products were used
mainly as industrial wipes. After World War II, products like draperies,
tablecloths, napkins and wiping towels were developed. It was realized that
woven fabrics have much better properties than nonwovens; so, the approach
was to claim the market where superior qualities of woven or knit fabrics
were not essential but where qualities better than those of paper were
As the quality requirements for nonwoven fabrics
increased and particularly as the need for white, clean fabric emerged, the
use of raw cotton became unacceptable and was abandoned by the industry
except for a few isolated product areas.
Within the last decade, bleached cotton fiber suitable
for processing on conventional nonwoven equipment has become available and
has substantially increased interest in this fiber. This is particularly
true in medical and healthcare applications, wiping and wiper markets, and
some apparel markets.
The raw cotton consists of about 96% cellulose and 4% of
waxes, pectin, and other proteinaceous and plant material. These minor
constituents that must be removed in the scouring and bleaching process to
give the soft, clean, white, absorbent fiber that is satisfactory for the
nonwovens industry after the application of an appropriate finishing oil.
The fiber length of cotton is important, particularly as
to its processability. Longer staple cotton (0.75 in. to 1.25 in.) is
satisfactory for nonwoven production. The fiber has excellent absorbency and
feels comfotable against the skin. It has fairly good strength both wet and
dry, and has moderate dimensional stability and elastic recovery. But the
resilience of cotton is relatively low, unless it is cross-linked by a
In nonwoven applications, the purity and absorbency of
bleached cotton are utilized in growing medical and healthcare applications.
Such fabrics usually are produced by the spunlace process. For similar
reasons, cotton spunlace fabrics are well accepted in personal and related
wipes, especially in Japan and the ASIAN region.
In a sense, bleached cotton fiber for nonwoven
application is a relatively new fiber. It is a comparatively expensive fiber
and available from only a few sources. Consequently, its use still is
restricted to specialized applications. This situation is likely to change
in the future as the price is further reduced and availability increased.
About 30% of world cotton production is harvested by
machines. Australia, Israel and USA are the only countries where all cottons
are picked by machines. Fifteen percent of world cotton production is ginned
on roller gins and almost all rest of cotton is saw ginned in most
Cotton fibers in non-wovens are generally used in their
bleached form. A lot of research and development has taken place for the
efficient production of bleached fibers. Most of the bleached cotton fibers
are produced by the Kier bleaching process. Since cotton of lesser grades is
useful for non-wovens, a conventional cleaning system does not suffice. This
might include a coarse wire carding, called Cotton Master Cleaners, for
cleaning the cotton.
- The conventional bleaching method for cottons meant for non-wovens
is a 9 step process are:
a) Fiber opening and cleaning
b) Alkali scouring application
c) Alkali reaction stage
e) Bleach application
f) Bleach reaction stage
h) Finish application
A continuous textile processing system and method
have been disclosed recently for producing a nonwoven web containing
bleached cotton fibers in a single line system which includes a supply
of fibers such as a bale opening device, The final nonwoven web
consisting of bleached cotton fibers may be made into highly purified
and absorbent wipes, pads, and other articles for medical, industrial,
or domestic use.
Finally, there is opening and bale formation.
Cotton Incorporated patented a processing line, which promised
better productivity and quality. It consists of :
a)Fiber opening and Cleaning
b) Formation of web
c) Steam purging and Alkali impregnation onto the sandwiched cotton web
between 2 porous conveyors.
d) After reaction, a pressure squeezing operation.
e) Similar processes for bleaching and then finishing.
- The recent system for scouring an bleaching of cotton fiber is the
Continuous Wet Finishing Technique' patented by Lawrence Girard and Walter
E Meyer and assigned to Greenville Machinery Corporation. It consists of :
- Opening and Cleaning
- Conversion of fibers into a batt, weighing 10-30 ounces/sq. yard, by
Needle punching or Air-lay technique.
- Fiber opening
Advantages of Continuous Finishing Techniques are :
a) Uniformity of scouring and bleaching
b) Uniformity of finish application
c) Shorter time in process for the materials
d) Lower water consumption and less effluent for treatment
e) The ability to provide additional chemical treatments to the cotton.
COST OF PRODUCING COTTON
The international cotton advisory committee(ICAC)
undertakes a survey of the cost of the production of cotton every three
years based on the data from 31 countries. Several factors are
considered, such as land rent, fertilizers, insect control, irrigation,
harvesting and ginning. The cost of seed cotton is more than $500 in USA to
produce one hectare of seed cotton. The net cost of producing lint from one
hectare (the value of seed and land rent were excluded from the total cost)
is highest in Australia(US$1,056) followed by the USA(US$889),
Pakistan(US$814), Zimbabwe(US$426) and China(US$416). It is most expensive
to produce a kilogram of lint in the USA(US$1.20), Australia(US$0.75) and
WEB PROCESSING WITH COTTON
Cotton fibers are used in the manufacture of nonwovens
either alone or in a blend. The various processes for the manufacture of
non-wovens are :
- This method of bonding provides strength to the
Nonwovens, comparable to woven fabric of the same basis weight. This
method yields high strength without interfering with the absorbency,
tensile strength and aesthetic properties of cotton. This type of
nonwovens can be wet processed like the conventional woven textiles for
bleaching, dyeing and finishing. To manufacture soft loose nonwovens,
partially entangled webs are produced by subjecting cotton webs to low
water jet pressures (approx. 300-500 psi). These types of webs can be wet
processed in a pad/batch state. The limitations of this process are that
production has been limited to fiber blends because of problems in
recycling water and the quality of bleached cotton.
- Needle punched cotton provides highly efficient filter
media based on the irregular fiber shape and absorption properties.
Increased tenacity in the wet condition can be an important advantage for
cotton filters. To build strength, scrim materials can be used as in bed
blankets and industrial fabrics. Needles of 36-42 gauge have been found
appropriate for the production of cotton needle punched nonwovens. For
very heavy fabrics, use is made of gauge 32 and for finer fabrics 40-42
gauge needles are being used.
- In this process cotton webs with blends of
thermoplastic fibers are passed between 2 hot rollers (Calendar rollers).
The thermoplastic fiber softens/melts and bonds the web. The initial work
was done with polyester as the thermoplastic fiber. Later polypropylene
was extended for the study because of economics, density and melting
temperature considerations. This was mainly to study the application as a
diaper lining material. Substantial work is still being done to develop
this type of nonwovens.
OTHER BONDING SYSTEMS:
- Impregnating the web with a resin or other adhesive material.
- Stripping off of the web with adhesive which bonds the fibers
together at regular intervals.
- Stitch bonding: cotton web is stitched like in sewing and the
product performance depends on web weight , stitch/inch and type of
APPLICATIONS AND MANUFACTURERS OF COTTON NON-WOVENS
Cotton nonwovens are used as swabs, puffs, wipes,
filters, waddings, personal care products like in diapers & feminine hygiene
products, semi-durable segments like bedding, household furnishing, pillow
SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION OF
August 23, 1999
Million Metric Tons Est. 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Est. Proj. Proj.
WORLD TOTAL 7.374 8.928 9.401 9.89 9.60 9.61
CHINA (MAINLAND) 2.788 3.715 4.002 4.30 4.12 3.47
USA 0.577 0.568 0.865 0.85 0.73 0.98
NET EXPORTERS 2.954 3.609 3.908 4.05 3.85 4.31
NET IMPORTERS 1/ 4.420 5.319 5.494 5.84 5.75 5.30
WORLD TOTAL 20.352 19.607 20.030 18.53 19.08 18.77
CHINA (MAINLAND) 4.768 4.203 4.602 4.50 4.00 3.80
USA 3.897 4.124 4.092 3.03 4.00 3.90
INDIA 2.885 3.024 2.686 2.75 2.85 2.86
PAKISTAN 1.801 1.594 1.561 1.48 1.50 1.50
UZBEKISTAN 1.254 1.062 1.139 1.00 1.05 1.10
TURKEY 0.851 0.784 0.838 0.87 0.82 0.79
OTHERS 4.895 4.816 5.113 4.90 4.86 4.82
WORLD TOTAL 18.580 19.378 19.269 18.84 19.06 19.23
CHINA (MAINLAND) 4.500 4.700 4.700 4.60 4.40 4.30
INDIA 2.576 2.864 2.684 2.68 2.85 2.95
EU, C. EUR. & TURKEY 2.351 2.513 2.597 2.36 2.44 2.45
USA 2.318 2.422 2.471 2.30 2.25 2.10
EAST ASIA & AUSTRALIA 2.160 2.086 1.922 1.97 2.04 2.00
PAKISTAN 1.540 1.524 1.543 1.53 1.56 1.60
BRAZIL 0.817 0.830 0.750 0.74 0.78 0.85
0.441 0.406 0.445 0.43 0.48 0.50
OTHERS 1.878 2.034 2.157 2.24 2.27 2.47
WORLD TOTAL 5.972 6.051 5.913 5.29 5.71 5.90
USA 1.671 1.495 1.633 0.93 1.50 1.70
UZBEKISTAN 0.940 1.042 1.050 0.90 0.88 0.96
FRANCOPHONE AFRICA 0.608 0.721 0.826 0.84 0.89 0.93
AUSTRALIA 0.308 0.519 0.575 0.65 0.58 0.58
GREECE 0.275 0.195 0.187 0.23 0.24 0.20
ARGENTINA 0.266 0.290 0.220 0.17 0.09 0.06
CHINA (MAINLAND) 0.005 0.002 0.006 0.15 0.30 0.30
WORLD TOTAL 5.809 6.137 5.742 5.34 5.71 5.90
EAST ASIA & AUSTRALIA 2.137 1.992 1.786 1.92 2.04 1.94
EU, C. EUR. & TURKEY 1.443 1.640 1.702 1.51 1.61 1.51
SOUTH AMERICA 0.510 0.633 0.581 0.49 0.52 0.71
0.224 0.206 0.273 0.24 0.29 0.29
CHINA (MAINLAND) 0.663 0.787 0.399 0.07 0.05 0.05
TRADEIMBALANCE2) -0.163 0.086 -0.170 0.05 0.00 0.00
STOCKS ADJUSTMENT 31 -0.055 0.159 -0.100 -0.03 -0.01 03
WORLD TOTAL 8.928 9.401 9.892 9.60 9.61 9.18
CHINA (MAINLAND) 3.715 4.002 4.297 4.12 3.47 2.72
USA 0.568 0.865 0.846 0.73 0.98 1.09
NET EXPORTERS 3.609 3.908 4.054 3.85 4.31 4.60
NET IMPORTERS 1/ 5.319 5.494 5.839 5.75 5.30 4.58
ENDING STOCKS/USE 4/ 0.42 0.42 0.41 0.38 0.40 0.41
COTLOOK A INDEX 5/ 85.61 78.60 72.20 58.90 59* 59*
1/ Includes Brazil, China (Mainland), Colombia, Greece, Mexico,
Turkey and traditional importers
2/ The inclusion of linters and waste, changes in weight during
transit, differences in reporting periods and measurement error account
for differences between world imports and exports.
3/ Difference between calculated stocks and actual, amounts for
forward seasons are anticipated
4/ World-less-China (Mainland) ending stocks minus China net exports,
quantity divided by world-less-China consumption
5/ U.S. Cents per pound. The estimates for 1998/99 and 1999/00 are
based on net China (Mainland) trade and world-less-China (Mainland)
ending stocks to use, corrected for the overall error. 95% confidence
interval extends 15 cents above and below the point estimate
MANUFACTURERS OF COTTON:
- New instrumentation to measure cotton contamination
- Cotton linters to replace the traditional 100% woodpulp fibers for
producing absorbent cores for disposable diapers and femine pads
- New quality measurements of small sample cotton are being
- Cotton is being blended with kenaf fibers to improve the softness and
- Buckeye Technologies has developed 100% natural cotton for tampon
- Clustering analysis is developed for cotton trash classification
- New method to improve the dyeablilty of cotton with reactive dyes.
COTTOn's FUTURE TRENDS
The world's cotton fiber production is approximately 89
million bales . In 1997, a production forecast  shows that the U.S. is
the largest cotton producer (18.4 million bales), followed by China (17.5
million bales), India (12.8 million bales), Pakistan (8.0 million bales) and
the former U. S. S. R. republics (7.7 million bales). Other important cotton
producers are Australia, Egypt, Turkey, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Greece
and Mexico. The highest cotton consumption is attributed to China (21.2
million bales), India (12.9 million bales) and U.S. (11.3 million bales).
The cotton in the future will likely see change according to the
More research will be done using the gene isolating
and exchanging techniques to induce desired effect into cotton. It is
not far away to produce cotton in a natural blue color without dyes by
biotechnology. Two other developments, which will likely come along in
the near future, are cage ginning and 100% classification of cotton by
- The world production will increase a little bit.
The 1998 U.S cotton crop is best described as a disaster due to cool
wet spring in the west and inadequate rainfall in the southeast.
- World cotton consumption is lagging a bit behind
production. After a surge in the mid-1980s, world cotton consumption
has been rather flat. But the long term potential for cotton demand
- All cotton plantings for 1999 are expected to total
14.6 million acres, 9 percent above 1998, and 5 percent greater than 1997.
Upland cotton is expected to total 14.2 million acres, up 9 percent from
last year. Growers planted 318,200 acres of American-Pima cotton. This is
a 3% decrease from last year's number, but 27% higher than the acreage of
2 years ago. Planting in Georgia started extremely slow due to a severely
dry spring, but by June 1 was nearly on pace with average. Conversely,
Texas experienced a near normal planting season although some replanting
was necessary due to wind and hail damage.
Graph of World cotton area/
World cotton yields/ world cotton production/World cotton consumption
Graph of Cotton Prices
Cotton nonwovens can be recycled, re-used or disposed off
by natural degradation conditions. Cotton is a readily renewable resource
with long-term supply assurance.
- Extensive research works is improving bleached fiber
quality and quantity. Nonwoven industries are producing various types of
nonwovens with different manufacturing techniques, for better production.
Cotton share of the textile fiber market has been
steadily increasing and will continue to increase as cotton containing items
is preferred by the consumers.
 Cotton for Nonwovens: A Technical Guide,
 Tortora, P.G., Collier, B.J.: Understanding Textiles, 5th edition,
 Kadolph,S.J., Langfold, A.J.: Textiles, 8th edition, Prentice-Hall,
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Market Research, Sep 15th, 1997
 The Classification of Cotton, USDA Agricultural Marketing Service,
cotton Division, Agricultural Handbook 566, September 1995,br>
 Shaw,C., Eckersley,F.: " cotton", Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons Ltd.,
 Duckett, K.E.: "Surface Properties of Cotton Fibers", Surface
Characteristics of Fibers and Textiles, edited by M.J.Schick., Fiber
Science Series, Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1975, p 67,br>
 Matthew's Textile Fibers, Their Physical, Microscopic and Chemical
Properties, edited by Herbert R. Mauersberger, 6th edition, John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1954
 Webster's Third New International Dictionary, edited by Phillip
Babcock Dove, G. & C. Merriam Company, 1963
 Gordon Cook, J.: Handbook of Textile Fibers, Part I. Natural
Fibers, Merrow Publishing Co. Ltd., 1968
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Congress of the Commercial Cotton Growers of Zimbabwe, June 5, 1996
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world", Technical information section, International Cotton Advisory
Committee, Washington, D. C. 1997
 National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural
Statistics Board, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Released June 30, 1999
 M Rafig Chaudhry: "Cost of Producing a Kilogram of cotton",
Technical information section, International Cotton Advisory Committee,
Washington, D. C. 1997
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 Kermit E. duckett: "Color grading of cotton-measurement", Beltwide
cotton conference, Orlando, Jan. 5-8, 1999
 J. Brandrup; E. H. Immergut; "Polymer Handbook", 1989
 M. Dean Ethridge, 57th Plenary Meeting of International
Cotton Advisory Committee, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, Oct. 12-16, 1998
 H. Charles Allen, Jr.; "Cotton in Absorbent Cores", Nonwovens
World, August-septembet, 1999, 71-78
 Lawrence H. Shaw; " Cotton's Importance in the Textile Industry",
Symposium, Lima, Peru, May 12, 1998
 Mark D. Lange, "Cotton Markets in the Crystal Ball
Month, June, 1998, 37-40
 ATI Special report, "Outlook for U.S cotton 1999", ATI, May 1999,
 Cotton Fibers:
 Judith M. Bradow, etc; "Quality Measurments", The Journal of
Cotton Science, 1:48-60, (1997)
 P. Bel-beiger, etc; "Textile Technology, Cotton/Kenaf Fabrics: A
Viable Natural Fabrics", the Journal of Cotton Science, 3:60-70, (1999)
 "A Guide to Fibers For Nonwovens", Nonwoven Industry, June 1999,
 "Readers Service, Natural Cotton Fiber", Nonwoven Industry, Jan.
 B. Xu and C. fang; "Clustering Analysis For Cotton Trash
Classification", Textile Research Journal, 69(9), 656-662, 1999
 Y. Cai, etc; "A New Method for Improving the Dyeability of cotton
with reactive Dyes", Textile Research Journal, 69(6), 440-446, 1999
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