Yield of Fiber: Measuring Textile Fiber Yields
Textile Units of Measure  Textile Fibers  Textile Industry

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Similar to tex and denier, yield is a term that helps describe the linear density of a roving of fibers. However, unlike tex and denier, yield is the inverse of linear density and is usually expressed in yards/lb.

A roving is a long and narrow bundle of fiber. Rovings are produced during the process of making spun yarn from wool fleece, raw cotton, or other fibers. Their main use is as fibre prepared for spinning.
Tex (g/km) Yield (yards/lb)


735 675
1100 450 
1200 413
2000 250
2200 225
2400 207
4400 113

Linear density is the measure of a quantity of any characteristic value per unit of length. Linear mass density (titer in textile engineering, the amount of mass per unit length).

The SI unit (International System of Units) of linear mass density is the kilogram per meter (kg/m). Linear density of fibers and yarns can be measured by many methods. The simplest one is to measure a length of material and weigh it. However, this requires a large sample and masks the variability of linear density along the thread, and is difficult to apply if the fibers are crimped or otherwise cannot lay flat relaxed. If the density of the material is known, the fibers are measured individually and have a simple shape, a more accurate method is direct imaging of the fiber with SEM to measure the diameter and calculation of the linear density. Finally, linear density is directly measured with a vibroscope. The sample is tensioned between two hard points, mechanical vibration is induced and the fundamental frequency is measured.

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Learn about fabric utilization which is also referenced at times as the yield of fabric.