Textile fibers, threads, yarns and fabrics are measured in a multiplicity of units. The linear density of a fiber is commonly measured in units of denier or tex.
The fineness of the yarn is usually expressed in terms of its linear density or count. There are a number of systems and units for expressing yarn fineness. But they are classified as follows .
English Yarn Count: English cotton count (Ne) : In this system, yarn count is defined as the number of hanks of 840 yards per pound. For example, yarn count 30 Ne means that there are 30 hanks (each hank consisting of 840 yards of yarn) per 1 lb. or 1 pound of that yarn (length per mass).
A lea (120 yd) of cotton yarn weighs 25 gr, calculate its count in the cotton system.
NeS (Woollen Count or Yorkshire skein). The number of 256 yards (234 m) lengths per 1 pound (0.45 kg) of yarn. NeS is an indirect measure of linear density. One of the best known of the many different woollen yarn counts.
Count is a numerical value, which express the coarseness or fineness (diameter) of the yarn and also indicate the relationship between length and weight(the mass per unit length or the length per unit mass)of that yarn. Therefore, the concept of yarn count has been introduced which specifies a certain ratio of length to weight.
Two Primary Yarn Count Systems
The Direct Count System: The weight of a fixed length of yarn is determined. The weight per unit length is the yarn count. The common features of all direct count systems are the length of yarn is fixed and the weight of yarn varies according to its fineness.
The following formula is used to calculate the yarn count:
N= (W×l) / L
1.Tex system would be the number of grams per 1000 meters
2.Denier would be the number of Grams per 9000 meters
3.Deci Tex would be the number of grams per 10,000 meters
4.Millitex would be the number of milligrams per 1000 meters
5.Kilotex would be the number of kilograms per 1000 meters.
6.Jute count would be the number of pounds per 14,400 yards
The Tex of a yarn indicates the weight in grams of 1000 meters of yarn. So that 40Tex means 1000 meters of yarn weigh 40gm.
The Indirect Count System: The length of a fixed weight of yarn is measured. The length per unit weight is the yarn count. The common features of all indirect count systems are the weight of yarn is fixed and the Length of yarn varies according to its fineness. In an indirect yarn counting system, the yarn number or count is the number of “units of length” per “unit of weight” of yarn. This means the higher the yarn count number, the finer or thinner the yarn. It is based on the fixed weight system. This system is generally used for cotton, woolen, worsted and linen yarn.
The following formula is used to calculate they are count:
N = (L×w) / W×l
N =Yarn count or number in the indirect system
W =Weight of the sample at the official regain in the unit of the system (upper case "W")
w = Unit of weight of the sample. (lower case "w")
L=Length of the sample
l=Unit of length of the sample
1. Ne: No of 840 yards yarn weighing in One pound
2. Nm: No of one kilometer yarn weighing in One Kilogram
The Ne indicates how many hanks of 840 yards length weigh one English pound. So that 32 Ne Means 32 hanks of 840 yards (for example, 32 x 840 yards length weigh one English pound). For the determination of the count of yarn, it is necessary to determine the weight of a known length of the yarn. For taking out the known lengths of yarns, a wrap-reel is used. The length of yarn reeled off depends upon the count system being used.
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