Dye Definition  Definitions for the Clothing & Textile Industry

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A dye can generally be described as a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. The dye is usually used as an aqueous solution and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber. (In contrast, a pigment generally has no affinity for the substrate, and is insoluble)

Archaeological evidence shows that, particularly in India and the Middle East, dyeing has been carried out for over 5000 years. 

The dyes were obtained from either animal, vegetable or mineral origin with no or very little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably roots, berries, bark, leaves and wood, but only a few have ever been used on a commercial scale.

Natural dyes

Animal Origin

Tyrian purple Vat dye

Kermes Mordant dye

Cochineal Mordant dye

Vegetable Origin

Safflower Direct (substantive) dye

Turmeric Direct (substantive) dye

Indigo Vat dye

Woad Vat dye

Alizarin (Madder) Mordant dye

Dyer's Broom Mordant dye

Logwood Mordant dye

Brazilwood Mordant dye

Quercitron bark Mordant dye

Weld Mordant dye

Old Fustic Mordant dye


Inorganic dyes

Iron Buff


The first man made organic dye, mauveine, was discovered by William Henry Perkin in 1856. Many thousands of dyes have since been prepared and because of vastly improved properties imparted upon the dyed materials quickly replaced the traditional natural dyes. Dyes are now classified according to how they are used in the dyeing process.

Acid dye

Water soluble anionic dyes that are applied to fibers such as silk, wool, nylon and modified acrylic fibers from neutral to acid dyebaths. Attachment to the fiber is attributed, at least partly, to salt formation between anionic groups in the dyes and cationic groups in the fiber. Acid dyes are not substantive to cellulosic fibers.

Basic dye

Water soluble cationic dyes that are mainly applied to acrylic fibers but find some use for wool, and silk. Usually acetic acid is added to the dyebath to help the take up of the dye onto the fiber. Basic dyes are also used in the coloration of paper.

Direct (Substantive) dye

Dyeing is normally carried out in a neutral or slightly alkaline dyebath, at or near the boil, with the addition of either sodium chloride (NaCl) or sodium sulphate (Na2SO4). Direct dyes are used on cotton, paper, leather, wool, silk and nylon. They are also used as pH indicators and as biological stains.

Mordant dye

As the name suggests these dyes require a mordant. This improves the fastness of the dye on the fiber such as water, light and perspiration fastness. The choice of mordant is very important as different mordants can change the final color significantly. Most natural dyes are mordant dyes and there is therefore a large literature base describing dyeing techniques. The most important mordant dyes are the synthetic mordant dyes (chrome dyes) used for wool, these comprise some 30% of dyes used for wool and are especially useful for black and navy shades. The mordant used is potassium dichromate applied as an after-treatment.

Vat dye

These dyes are essentially insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibers directly. However, reduction in alkaline liquor produces the water soluble alkali metal salt of the dye. In this leuco form these dyes have an affinity for the textile fiber. Subsequent oxidation reforms the original insoluble dye.

Reactive dye

First appeared commercially in 1956, after their invention in 1954 by Rattee and Stephens at the ICI Dyestuffs Division site in Blackley, Manchester, UK. They are used to dye cellulosic fibers. The dyes contain a reactive group, either a haloheterocycle or an activated double bond, that, when applied to a fiber in a weakly alkaline dyebath, forms a chemical bond with an hydroxyl group on the cellulosic fiber. Reactive dyeing is now the most important method for the coloration of cellulsic fibers. Reactive dyes can also be used to dye wool and nylon, in the latter case they are applied under weakly acidic conditions.

Disperse dye

Originally developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate. They are substantially water insoluble. The dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent then sold as a paste or spray dried and sold as a powder. They can also be used to dye nylon, triacetate, polyester and acrylic fibers. In some cases a dyeing temperature of 130 deg C is required and a pressurised dyebath is used. The very fine particle size gives a large surface area that aids dissolution to allow uptake by the fiber. The dyeing rate can be significantly influenced by the choice of dispersing agent used during the grinding.

Azoic dye

A dyeing technique in which an insoluble azo dye is produced directly onto or within the fiber. This is achieved by treating a fiber with a diazo component and a coupling component. With suitable adjustment of dyebath conditions the two components react to produce the required insoluble azo dye. This technique of dyeing is unique in that the final color is controlled by the choice of the diazo and coupling components.

One other class which describes the role dyes have rather than their mode of use is food dyes.

This is a special class of dyes of very high purity. They include direct, mordant and vat dyes. Their use is strictly controlled by legislation. Many are azo dyes but anthraquinone and triphenylmethane compounds are used for colors such as green and blue. Some naturally occurring dyes are also used.

A number of other classes have also been established and these include:

Oxidation bases mainly hair and fur

Sulfur dyes textile fibers

Leather dyes leather

Fluorescent brighteners textile fibers and paper

Solvent dyes wood staining,

producing colored lacquers,

producing solvent inks,

coloring oils, waxes and fats.

fabric Definition

fiber Definition

The above article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dye).  11/06/04  Modified by Apparel Search.

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